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Main Characteristics of Li-ion Battery — High Energy Density Small Lipo Battery

From:CTECHI GROUP Limited     Release time:2019-02-13

Overview:Lithium is the smallest and most active metal on the chemical periodic table. Because of its small size and high capacity density, it has been widely praised in the battery market. However, the chemical characteristics are too active, which brings high risk. When lithium metal is exposed to air, it will react with oxygen intensely and explode. To improve safety and voltage, scientists have invented materials such as graphite and lithium cobalt oxide to store lithium atoms. The molecular structure of these materials forms nanoscale small storage lattices that can be used to store lithium atoms. In this way, even if the battery shell ruptures and oxygen enters, the oxygen molecules will be too large to enter these tiny storage cells, so that lithium atoms will not contact with oxygen and avoid explosion. This principle of lithium-ion batteries enables people to achieve high capacity density and safety at the same time.

Lithium is the smallest and most active metal on the chemical periodic table. Because of its small size and high capacity density, it has been widely praised in the battery market. However, the chemical characteristics are too active, which brings high risk. When lithium metal is exposed to air, it will react with oxygen intensely and explode. To improve safety and voltage, scientists have invented materials such as graphite and lithium cobalt oxide to store lithium atoms. The molecular structure of these materials forms nanoscale small storage lattices that can be used to store lithium atoms. In this way, even if the battery shell ruptures and oxygen enters, the oxygen molecules will be too large to enter these tiny storage cells, so that lithium atoms will not contact with oxygen and avoid explosion. This principle of lithium-ion batteries enables people to achieve high capacity density and safety at the same time.


When lithium-ion batteries are charged, the lithium atoms in the cathode lose electrons and oxidize to lithium ions. Lithium ion swims to the negative electrode through the electrolyte, enters the storage cell of the negative electrode, and obtains an electron, which is reduced to lithium atom. When discharging, the whole program is reversed. In order to prevent short circuit caused by direct contact between positive and negative electrodes, a kind of diaphragm paper with many holes will be added to the battery to prevent short circuit. Good diaphragm paper can also automatically close the fine holes when the battery temperature is too high, so that lithium ions can not pass through, to prevent danger.

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Protective measures:

When the overcharge voltage of lithium batteries is higher than 4.2V, it will start to produce side effects. The higher the overcharge voltage, the higher the risk. When the voltage of the lithium core is higher than 4.2V, the number of lithium atoms remaining in the cathode material is less than half. At this time, the storage cell often collapses, causing a permanent decline in battery capacity. If the charge is continued, subsequent lithium metals will accumulate on the surface of the negative material because the storage cell of the negative electrode is filled with lithium atoms. These lithium atoms grow dendritic crystals from the negative surface toward the direction of lithium ions. These lithium crystals will pass through the diaphragm paper and short the positive and negative electrodes. Sometimes the battery explodes before the short circuit occurs. This is because in the process of overcharging, materials such as electrolyte will crack to produce gas, causing the battery shell or pressure valve to swell and burst, allowing oxygen to react with lithium atoms accumulated on the surface of the negative electrode, and then explode. Therefore, when recharging lithium batteries, it is necessary to set a voltage ceiling, so as to take into account the life, capacity and safety of the batteries at the same time. The optimal upper limit of charging voltage is 4.2V.


There is also a lower voltage limit when lithium cores are discharged. When the core voltage is less than 2.4V, some materials will begin to be destroyed. Because the battery will self-discharge, the longer the discharge time, the lower the voltage. Therefore, it is better not to put 2.4V to stop discharging. During the period from 3.0V discharge to 2.4V discharge, the energy released by lithium batteries only accounts for about 3% of the battery capacity. Therefore, 3.0V is an ideal discharge cut-off voltage.


In addition to voltage limitation, current limitation is also necessary when charging and discharging. When the current is too high, lithium ions can not enter the storage cell, and will accumulate on the surface of the material. When these lithium ions acquire electrons, lithium atoms will crystallize on the surface of the material, which is as dangerous as overcharging. If the battery case breaks, it will explode.


Therefore, the protection of lithium-ion batteries should include at least three items: the upper limit of charging voltage, the lower limit of discharging voltage and the upper limit of current. In general, besides the lithium battery core, there will be a protective plate in the lithium battery pack, which mainly provides these three kinds of protection.


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