From：CTECHI GROUP Limited Release time：2019-01-07
Overview：Researchers from the University of California, Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Carnegie Mellon University and the German Institute of Combustion Technology have demonstrated that an electrolyte can effectively increase the capacity of lithium-air batteries. The electrolyte consists of anions that release more electrons and non-aqueous solvents that release fewer electrons. The study was published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
Researchers from the University of California, Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Carnegie Mellon University and the German Institute of Combustion Technology have demonstrated that an electrolyte can effectively increase the capacity of lithium-air batteries. The electrolyte consists of anions that release more electrons and non-aqueous solvents that release fewer electrons. The study was published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
For electric vehicles, metal air batteries are undoubtedly the most attractive potential stars. They have light weight, high energy density and long endurance, which integrate the characteristics required by electric vehicles. However, lithium-air batteries have not been able to show themselves up to now because of its fatal defect, that is, solid reaction products accumulate in the positive electrode, which leads to the discharge stopping. The product of electrochemical reaction of water-insoluble lithium air battery is lithium peroxide. Lithium peroxide is insoluble in proton inert organic solvents, and deposits on the surface of the cathode will eventually make the cathode unable to react, thus reducing the capacity of the battery.
Several research institutes have been trying to overcome this problem, one of which is to adjust the electrolyte to enhance the solubility of intermediate products. Researchers conducted qualitative and quantitative studies on electrolytes to measure how lithium oxide can be dissolved to increase battery capacity. In the electrolyte they designed, the cell capacity could be increased by four times, and it was proved that anions play an important role in the cell cycle.
Scanning electron microscopy was then used to examine the morphology of lithium peroxide deposited on the cathode surface. The results show that the increase of cell capacity may be due to the presence of soluble oxygen ions induced by NO3 - (nitrate ion group with a unit negative charge). Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) further confirmed that NO3 - ions play an important role in the release of electrons from electrolytes.
Researchers also studied the thermodynamic properties of solvents to obtain a quantitative model of how the amount of electrons released by anions affects the capacity of batteries. They use a simplified Ising model to describe the lithium ion solvation layer, which is mainly used to study the interaction between adjacent particles. The function of solvent electron release was given. Under the assumption that the position of electrolyte in the lithium ion solvation layer was constant, it was proved that with the increase of NO3-ion concentration, it could occupy more positions in the solvation layer.
Using this model, researchers created contour maps, which provide a broad tool for the study of metal air batteries. The conclusion is that lithium oxide can not be formed by releasing anions with more electrons, thus increasing the battery capacity.
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