From：CTECHI GROUP Limited Release time：2019-01-16
Overview：Although lithium-ion batteries are the main energy storage force nowadays, there are still many research groups and manufacturers trying to find more stable and effective energy storage technology than lithium-ion batteries. Recently, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) of the US Department of Energy has successfully developed magnesium solid-state batteries, and the prototype energy density and material cost of the batteries are better than lithium-ion batteries.
Although lithium-ion batteries are the main energy storage force nowadays, there are still many research groups and manufacturers trying to find more stable and effective energy storage technology than lithium-ion batteries. Recently, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) of the US Department of Energy has successfully developed magnesium solid-state batteries, and the prototype energy density and material cost of the batteries are better than lithium-ion batteries.
Magnesium ore is more abundant and cheaper than lithium ore in the earth, and its electricity consumption is twice that of lithium batteries, but there are still many obstacles to be overcome.
In principle, battery ions can flow between positive and negative electrodes through electrolyte, and supply power for battery by electrochemical reaction. The reaction must be reversible, otherwise the battery cannot be charged. However, the carbonate electrolyte in magnesium battery can easily form a barrier layer on the surface of magnesium during charging and discharging cycle, which hinders battery charging.
Although magnesium can also be charged and discharged through highly corrosive liquid electrolytes, if corrosive electrolytes are used, magnesium batteries will not be able to operate at high voltage, and there are safety concerns. Therefore, NREL develops a new electrolyte, which combines polyacrylonitrile with magnesium-ionsalt to form a solid electrolyte, which can protect magnesium anode and improve battery performance.
At present, researchers have successfully built a prototype of magnesium solid-state battery. The research also points out that the protected magnesium anode can also be charged in the carbonate electrolyte, and can provide more energy. In addition to successfully developing recyclable magnesium batteries, the team also provides solutions to the incompatibility between anodes and electrolytes and to break down the limitations of cathodes on ions.
Magnesium is abundant in the earth and ranks eighth in reserves. Magnesium is alkaline earth metal with valence electron number of 2. Compared with lithium with valence electron number of 1, it can provide nearly twice the electricity. In addition, magnesium will not produce dendrites, and the battery will not have explosion risk. If magnesium batteries are successfully implemented and commercialized, it will be of great benefit to the rapidly rising battery market.
"As scientific researchers, we are always thinking about what to do next?" Chunmei Ban, a material scientist at NREL, said that lithium-ion batteries, which are dominant in energy storage, have gradually reached their peak, so there is an urgent need to find a new generation of energy storage technology, and new batteries must be able to provide more power at a lower cost. NREL scientist Seoung-BumSon pointed out that the discovery could pave the way for the future of magnesium batteries.
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